Architecture is a general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The field of architecture has contributed a lot to the society. In the past, human settlements were plainly rural due to lack of architecture. Eventually, the discovery of architecture transformed rural societies into urban cities.
Architectural heritage is essential in our culture and needs to be preserved as part of our tradition. There are various methods and technologies that have used to preserve and present architectural structure. One of which are 3D models. Two-dimensional drawings and architecture representations are now integrated into 3D models formed by 3D digitization.
Digital recording of architectural structures may help in the preservation of architectural heritage. There are some organizations which prove that it is important to record cultural heritage monuments and provide proper documentation. 3D digitization is composed of multiple methods that lead to the complete recording of a monument. The methods are classified below:
- Empiric Technique – During this process, distances between characteristic points on the monument’s surface are measured by the hand. This is the simplest among all the methods but is of low accuracy.
- Surveying Technique – This method uses high accuracy measuring devices like a Total station, a device that measures angles and devices of characteristic points on the surface of the monument. It is reliable and highly accurate. It also provides an easy way to measure data.
- Laser Scanning Technique – his is the most advanced method. It uses laser scanners to measure topographic quantities. It also measures the direction of a line joining the characteristic points of a monument. The scanners can estimate the distance from different points. It is also reliable and highly accurate. However, it can be costly and is not portable.
- Photogrammetry – This method can be used to record stages of the monument from different time periods. Through digital photogrammetry, you can figure out 2D or 3D coordinates from photos with the aid of CAD software. It is simple and cheap, but it has to be combined with other methods.
All these methods can be applied to cultural architecture recording. 3D digitization is a multi-dimensional process where the main goal is to preserve architectural heritage and to promote cultural content.